In some research only a sex analysis is relevant to the problem at stake; e.g. preclinical studies on cells and tissues, and in animals in many cases, given that an over-reliance on male animals, and neglect of attention to the sex of cells, can lead to neglect of key sex differences that should be guiding clinical studies, and ultimately, clinical practice.
In some other cases, only a gender analysis is necessary (mainly in studies where biological differences do not play a role), and in some cases both sex and gender analysis is relevant.
Pain, for example, exhibits biological sex differences in the physiology of signalling. Pain also incorporates sociocultural components in how symptoms are reported by women, men, and gender-diverse people, and how physicians understand and treat pain according to a patient’s gender.